Technical Appendix

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Simulator Details

Our main simulator was adapted to carry out the Balkanization simulation. To begin with, a society is created using the Geographic type of graph. This procedure randomly assigns agents positions in a particular geographic region. Agents are assigned a positive amount of knowledge to denote the type that they belong to. The connections that are formed are limited by the parameters of access and channel count.

In the deterministic model, agents connect to others of the same type, if any are available, and then to agents of a different type. The "Similarity/Difference" algorithm was used, set to a partial preference to similarity. The agents were set to connect deterministically, in parallel order. In this configuration, agents connect first to similar types, before attempting to connect to different types, as required.

In order to demonstrate the probabilistic model, the simulator was set to connect agents with the Similarity/Difference algorithm, as before. The agents were again set to connect in parallel, but probabilistically, rather than deterministically. This configuration has the desired properties.

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